Tai Lab

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Dr. Isabella Tai is interested in understanding the mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance, metastasis and tumour progression in gastrointestinal cancers. Her group uses genomic and proteomic approaches to identify genetic markers that could be suitable for colorectal cancer screening, and to identify unique signatures that correspond to drug resistance in colorectal cancers.

Dr. Tai is a graduate of the University of Toronto's MD/PhD Program and received her FRCP(C) designations in Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology from the University of Toronto. She began her academic career as a postdoctoral research fellow in the Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Gastroenterology Fellow at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center at Harvard Medical School. In 2003, she took a faculty position in the Department of Medicine at the University of British Columbia where she is now Clinical Associate Professor of Gastroenterology, and became a Senior Scientist at Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre and a Staff Physician at Vancouver Hospital and Health Services.

  • Clinical Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia
  • Ph.D., Physiology, University of Toronto, Canada
  • M.D., Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
  • FRCP(C), Internal Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada
  • FRCP(C), Gastroenterology, University of Toronto, Canada


Identification of Novel Genes Involved in the Colorectal Cancer Progression

The Tai lab has employed Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to identify unknown transcripts representing novel genes involved in the multi-step progression of colorectal cancer development. Novel genes identified in this manner will be studied systematically for their role in colorectal cancer progression and tumourigenesis.

Selected Publications

Inhibition of nucleophosmin 1 suppresses colorectal cancer tumor growth of patient -derived xenografts via activation of p53 and inhibition of AKT.

Cancer biology & therapy, 2021
Yu, Angel C Y, Chern, Yi-Jye, Zhang, Peter, Pasiliao, Clarissa C, Rahman, Mahbuba, Chang, George, Ren, Jianhua, Tai, Isabella T
The nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) protein is frequently overexpressed in various cancers compared to normal tissues and represents a potential biomarker for maliganancy. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still not fully understood. In this report, we show that NPM1 levels in CRC correlate with prognosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy. NPM1 expression was found to be significantly increased in CRC tumors ( < .001) and was associated with poor overall 5-year survival ( < .05). For individuals with Stage IV disease, this represented a reduction in survival by 11 months ( < .01; HR = 0.38, CI [0.21, 0.69]. , we show that NPM1 gene silencing enhanced the chemosensitivity of CRC cells and that pharmacological inhibition of NPM1 by NSC348884 triggered the onset of programmed cell death. Our immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses also revealed that blocking NPM1 function sensitized CRC cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that involves proteins in the AKT pathway. Consistent with the data, our patient-derived CRC xenograft model showed that inhibition of NPM1 suppressed tumor growth and attenuated AKT signaling . Moreover, LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K/AKT pathway, restored the chemosensitivity of CRC cells expressing high levels of NPM1. The findings that NPM1's expression in CRC tissue correlates with prognosis and supports anti-apoptotic activity mediated by AKT signaling, further our understanding of the role of NPM1 in CRC.

Heat shock protein 47 promotes tumor survival and therapy resistance by modulating AKT signaling PHLPP1 in colorectal cancer.

Cancer biology & medicine, 2020
Chern, Yijye, Zhang, Peter, Ju, Hyelim, Tai, Isabella T
Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that facilitates collagen maturation. Its role in cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of HSP47 in colorectal cancer (CRC) and therapy resistance. Expression of HSP47 in CRC tissues was examined (1) in paired human CRC/adjacent normal tissues, using real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and 22 independent microarray databases (curated CRC). studies on several CRC cell lines (HCT116, RKO and CCL228) with modulated HSP47 expression were conducted to assess cell viability and apoptosis (TUNEL assay and caspase-3/-7) during exposure to chemotherapy. AKT signaling and co-immunoprecipitation studies were performed to examine HSP47 and PHLPP1 interaction. studies using tumor xenografts were conducted to assess the effects of HSP47 modulation on tumor growth and therapy response. HSP47 was upregulated in CRC and was associated with poor prognosis in individuals with CRC. , HSP47 overexpression supported the survival of CRC cells, whereas its knockdown sensitized cells to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). HSP47 promoted survival by inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing AKT phosphorylation, and decreasing expression of the AKT-specific phosphatase PHLPP1 when cells were exposed to chemotherapy. These effects were partly results of the interaction between HSP47 and PHLPP1, which decreased PHLPP1 stability and led to more persistent AKT activity. , HSP47 supported tumor growth despite 5-FU treatment. HSP47 supports the growth of CRC tumors and suppresses the efficacy of chemotherapy modulation of AKT signaling.

The interaction between SPARC and GRP78 interferes with ER stress signaling and potentiates apoptosis via PERK/eIF2α and IRE1α/XBP-1 in colorectal cancer.

Cell death & disease, 2019
Chern, Yi-Jye, Wong, John C T, Cheng, Grace S W, Yu, Angel, Yin, Yaling, Schaeffer, David F, Kennecke, Hagen F, Morin, Gregg, Tai, Isabella T
Therapy-refractory disease is one of the main contributors of treatment failure in cancer. In colorectal cancer (CRC), SPARC can function as a sensitizer to conventional chemotherapy by enhancing apoptosis by interfering with the activity of Bcl-2. Here, we examine a novel mechanism by which SPARC further potentiates apoptosis via its modulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Using mass spectrometry to identify SPARC-associated proteins, GRP78 was identified as a protein partner for SPARC in CRC. In vitro studies conducted to assess the signaling events resulting from this interaction, included induction of ER stress with tunicamycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and irinotecan (CPT-11). We found that the interaction between GRP78 and SPARC increased during exposure to 5-FU, CPT-11, and tunicamycin, resulting in an attenuation of GRP78's inhibition of apoptosis. In addition, we also show that SPARC can sensitize CRC cells to PERK/eIF2α and IRE1α/XBP-1 UPR signaling by interfering with ER stress following binding to GRP78, which leads to ER stress-associated cell death in CRC cells. In line with these findings, a lower expression of GRP78 relative to SPARC in CRC is associated with a lower IC{{sub}}50{{/sub}} for 5-FU in either sensitive or therapy-refractory CRC cells. Interestingly, this observation correlates with tissue microarray analysis of 143 human CRC, where low GRP78 to SPARC expression level was prognostic of higher survival rate (P = 0.01) in individuals with CRC. This study demonstrates that modulation of UPR signaling by SPARC promotes ER stress-associated death and potentiates apoptosis. This may be an effective strategy that can be combined with current treatment options to improve therapeutic efficacy in CRC.

Inactivation of the Kinase Domain of CDK10 Prevents Tumor Growth in a Preclinical Model of Colorectal Cancer, and Is Accompanied by Downregulation of Bcl-2.

Molecular cancer therapeutics, 2017
Weiswald, Louis-Bastien, Hasan, Mohammad R, Wong, John C T, Pasiliao, Clarissa C, Rahman, Mahbuba, Ren, Jianhua, Yin, Yaling, Gusscott, Samuel, Vacher, Sophie, Weng, Andrew P, Kennecke, Hagen F, Bièche, Ivan, Schaeffer, David F, Yapp, Donald T, Tai, Isabella T
Cyclin-dependent kinase 10 (CDK10), a CDC2-related kinase, is highly expressed in colorectal cancer. Its role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer is unknown. This study examines the function of CDK10 in colorectal cancer, and demonstrates its role in suppressing apoptosis and in promoting tumor growth and Modulation of CDK10 expression in colorectal cancer cell lines demonstrates that CDK10 promotes cell growth, reduces chemosensitivity and inhibits apoptosis by upregulating the expression of Bcl-2. This effect appears to depend on its kinase activity, as kinase-defective mutant colorectal cancer cell lines have an exaggerated apoptotic response and reduced proliferative capacity. , inhibiting CDK10 in colorectal cancer following intratumoral injections of lentivirus-mediated CDK10 siRNA in a patient-derived xenograft mouse model demonstrated its efficacy in suppressing tumor growth. Furthermore, using a tissue microarray of human colorectal cancer tissues, the potential for CDK10 to be a prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer was explored. In tumors of individuals with colorectal cancer, high expression of CDK10 correlates with earlier relapse and shorter overall survival. The findings of this study indicate that CDK10 plays a role in the pathogenesis in colorectal cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for treatment. .

Nucleophosmin 1, upregulated in adenomas and cancers of the colon, inhibits p53-mediated cellular senescence.

International journal of cancer, 2013
Wong, John C T, Hasan, Mohammad R, Rahman, Mahbuba, Yu, Angel C, Chan, Simon K, Schaeffer, David F, Kennecke, Hagen F, Lim, Howard J, Owen, David, Tai, Isabella T
Dysregulation of nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) has been found in numerous solid and hematological malignancies. Our previous meta-analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) high throughput gene expression profiling studies identified it as a consistently reported up-regulated gene in the malignant state. Our aims were to compare NPM1 expression in normal colon, adenoma and CRC, to correlate their expressions with clinico-pathological parameters, and to assess the biological role of aberrant NPM1 expression in CRC cells. NPM1 transcript levels were studied in human CRC cell lines, whereas a tissue microarray of 57 normal human colon, 40 adenoma and 185 CRC samples were used to analyze NPM1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. CRC cell lines were subjected to transient siRNA-mediated knockdown to study NPM1's roles on cell viability and senescence. NPM1 transcript levels were 7-11-folds higher in three different human CRC cell lines compared to normal colon cells. NPM1 protein expression was found to be progressively and significantly upregulated in CRC compared to adenomas and in adenomas compared to normal mucosa. Reducing NPM1 expression by siRNA had caused a significant decrease in cell viability, a concomitant increase in cellular senescence and cell cycle arrest. Cellular senescence induced under conditions of forced NPM1 suppression could be prevented by knocking down p53. The differential expression of NPM1 along the normal colon-adenoma-carcinoma progression and its involvement in resisting p53 related senescent growth arrest in CRC cell lines implicate its role in supporting CRC tumorigenesis.

Inhibition of COX-2 in colon cancer modulates tumor growth and MDR-1 expression to enhance tumor regression in therapy-refractory cancers in vivo.

Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.), 2012
Rahman, Mahbuba, Selvarajan, Krithika, Hasan, Mohammad R, Chan, Annie P, Jin, Chaoyang, Kim, Jieun, Chan, Simon K, Le, Nhu D, Kim, Young-Bae, Tai, Isabella T
Higher cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is often observed in aggressive colorectal cancers (CRCs). Here, we attempt to examine the association between COX-2 expression in therapy-refractory CRC, how it affects chemosensitivity, and whether, in primary tumors, it is predictive of clinical outcomes. Our results revealed higher COX-2 expression in chemoresistant CRC cells and tumor xenografts. In vitro, the combination of either aspirin or celecoxib with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was capable of improving chemosensitivity in chemorefractory CRC cells, but a synergistic effect with 5-FU could only be demonstrated with celecoxib. To examine the potential clinical significance of these observations, in vivo studies were undertaken, which also showed that the greatest tumor regression was achieved in chemoresistant xenografts after chemotherapy in combination with celecoxib, but not aspirin. We also noted that these chemoresistant tumors with higher COX-2 expression had a more aggressive growth rate. Given the dramatic response to a combination of celecoxib + 5-FU, the possibility that celecoxib may modulate chemosensitivity as a result of its ability to inhibit MDR-1 was examined. In addition, assessment of a tissue microarray consisting of 130 cases of CRCs revealed that, in humans, higher COX-2 expression was associated with poorer survival with a 68% increased risk of mortality, indicating that COX-2 expression is a marker of poor clinical outcome. The findings of this study point to a potential benefit of combining COX-2 inhibitors with current regimens to achieve better response in the treatment of therapy-refractory CRC and in using COX-2 expression as a prognostic marker to help identify individuals who would benefit the greatest from closer follow-up and more aggressive therapy.

A peptide of SPARC interferes with the interaction between caspase8 and Bcl2 to resensitize chemoresistant tumors and enhance their regression in vivo.

PloS one, 2011
Rahman, Mahbuba, Chan, Annie P K, Tang, Michelle, Tai, Isabella T
SPARC, a matricellular protein with tumor suppressor properties in certain human cancers, was initially identified in a genome-wide analysis of differentially expressed genes in chemotherapy resistance. Its exciting new role as a potential chemosensitizer arises from its ability to augment the apoptotic cascade, although the exact mechanisms are unclear. This study further examines the mechanism by which SPARC may be promoting apoptosis and identifies a smaller peptide analogue with greater chemosensitizing and tumor-regressing properties than the native protein. We examined the possibility that the apoptosis-enhancing activity of SPARC could reside within one of its three biological domains (N-terminus (NT), the follistatin-like (FS), or extracellular (EC) domains), and identified the N-terminus as the region with its chemosensitizing properties. These results were not only confirmed by studies utilizing stable cell lines overexpressing the different domains of SPARC, but as well, with a synthetic 51-aa peptide spanning the NT-domain. It revealed that the NT-domain induced a significantly greater reduction in cell viability than SPARC, and that it enhanced the apoptotic cascade via its activation of caspase 8. Moreover, in chemotherapy resistant human colon, breast and pancreatic cancer cells, its chemosensitizing properties also depended on its ability to dissociate Bcl2 from caspase 8. These observations translated to clinically significant findings in that, in-vivo, mouse tumor xenografts overexpressing the NT-domain of SPARC had significantly greater sensitivity to chemotherapy and tumor regression, even when compared to the highly-sensitive SPARC-overexpressing tumors. Our results identified an interplay between the NT-domain, Bcl2 and caspase 8 that helps augment apoptosis and as a consequence, a tumor's response to therapy. This NT-domain of SPARC and its 51-aa peptide are highly efficacious in modulating and enhancing apoptosis, thereby conferring greater chemosensitivity to resistant tumors. Our findings provide additional insight into mechanisms involved in chemotherapy resistance and a potential novel therapeutic that specifically targets this devastating phenomenon.

Inhibition of VEGF induces cellular senescence in colorectal cancer cells.

International journal of cancer, 2011
Hasan, Mohammad R, Ho, Shirley H Y, Owen, David A, Tai, Isabella T
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors, such as bevacizumab, have improved outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have suggested that VEGF can delay the onset of cellular senescence in human endothelial cells. As VEGF receptors are known to be upregulated in CRC, we hypothesized that VEGF inhibition may directly influence cellular senescence in this disease. In our study, we observed that treatment with bevacizumab caused a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cellular senescence in vitro in several CRC cells, such as MIP101, RKO, SW620 and SW480 cells, compared to untreated or human IgG-treated control cells. Similar results were also obtained from cells treated with a VEGFR2 kinase inhibitor Ki8751. In vivo, cellular senescence was detected in MIP101 tumor xenografts from 75% of mice treated with bevacizumab, while cellular senescence was undetectable in xenografts from mice treated with saline or human IgG (p < 0.05). Interestingly, we also observed that the proportion of senescent cells in colon cancer tissues obtained from patients treated with bevacizumab was 4.4-fold higher (p < 0.01) than those of untreated patients. To understand how VEGF inhibitors may regulate cellular senescence, we noted that among the two important regulators of senescent growth arrest of tumor cells, bevacizumab-associated increase in cellular senescence coincided with an upregulation of p16 but appeared to be independent of p53. siRNA silencing of p16 gene in MIP101 cells suppressed bevacizumab-induced cellular senescence, while silencing of p53 had no effect. These findings demonstrate a novel antitumor activity of VEGF inhibitors in CRC, involving p16.

Absence of MMP2 expression correlates with poor clinical outcomes in rectal cancer, and is distinct from MMP1-related outcomes in colon cancer.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 2011
Wong, John C T, Chan, Simon K, Schaeffer, David F, Sagaert, Xavier, Lim, Howard J, Kennecke, Hagen, Owen, David A, Suh, Kwang W, Kim, Young-Bae, Tai, Isabella T
Treatments for colorectal cancer (CRC) are primarily disease stage based. However, heterogeneity in outcome within even a single stage highlights its limitations in predicting disease behavior. Recently, the role of gene expression as predictive and prognostic markers has been explored. Our objectives were to identify consistently differentially expressed genes through meta-analysis of high-throughput gene-expression studies, and evaluate their predictive and prognostic significance in colon (CC) and rectal (RC) cancers.

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-induced cellular senescence in colorectal cancers in response to irinotecan is mediated by P53.

Carcinogenesis, 2010
Chan, Justin M, Ho, Shirley H, Tai, Isabella T
Cellular senescence is another mechanism that can be exploited to achieve better chemosensitivity and greater tumor regression. Unlike apoptosis, cellular senescence can be induced at much lower concentrations of chemotherapy that are better tolerated by patients. We previously revealed that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), a matricellular protein, may function as a modulator of chemotherapy sensitivity by enhancing apoptosis. Here, we examine the effects of SPARC on cellular senescence in the presence of chemotherapy. Cellular senescence is induced only in sensitive colorectal cancer (CRC) cells with low concentrations of irinotecan (CPT-11). However, CPT-11-resistant cells exposed to endogenous or exogenous SPARC can also be triggered into cellular senescence. This induction is associated with higher levels of p16(INK4A) and phosphorylated p53. Knock down of p16(INK4A) reduces drug-induced senescence in all cells, but knock down and overexpression of p53 modulates senescence only in cells exposed to SPARC. Furthermore, treatment of mice with SPARC and CPT-11 leads to significantly increased cellular senescence and tumor regression. The chemosensitizing effects of SPARC in CRCs are, therefore, probably mediated in part by activating cellular senescence.
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