Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by common and rare driver gene alterations that provide a selective growth advantage for progressing tumour cells. We hypothesized that the number of distinct gene driver alteration-affected pathways or gene classes was associated with poor prognosis in patients initiating androgen receptor signalling inhibitors (ARSi). We performed a post hoc analysis of an amalgamated baseline circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) mutational landscape dataset of ARSi-treated men with mCRPC (n = 342). We associated the detected hotspot, pathogenic, and/or high impact protein function-affecting perturbations in 39 genes into 13 pathways. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analysed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression models. Driver gene alterations were detected in 192/342 (56.1%) evaluable patients. An increased number of affected pathways, coined pathway complexity index (PCI), resulted in a decremental PFS and OS, and was independently associated with prognosis once ≥3 pathway or gene classes were affected (PFS HR (95%CI): 1.7 (1.02-2.84), p = 0.04, and OS HR (95%CI): 2.5 (1.06-5.71), p = 0.04). Additionally, visceral disease and baseline PSA and plasma ctDNA levels were independently associated with poor prognosis. Elevated PCI is associated with poor ARSi outcome and supports comprehensive genomic profiling to better infer mCRPC prognosis.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection represents a global health crisis. Immune cell activation via pattern recognition receptors has been implicated as a driver of the hyperinflammatory response seen in COVID-19. However, our understanding of the specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Mast cells (MCs) and eosinophils are innate immune cells that play pathogenic roles in many inflammatory responses. Here we report MC-derived proteases and eosinophil-associated mediators are elevated in COVID-19 patient sera and lung tissues. Stimulation of viral-sensing toll-like receptors
Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer have improved patient outcomes. Nonetheless, this disease remains fatal and additional treatment approaches are needed. Greater understanding of the molecular landscape of metastatic prostate cancer has revealed recurrent alterations in key pathways amenable to therapeutic targeting. One such pathway is DNA repair, particularly alterations in genes directly or indirectly associated with homologous recombination repair found in up to one-quarter of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Olaparib, an inhibitor of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, has recently gained approval for the treatment of mCRPC harboring alterations in homologous recombination repair genes. This review will provide a summary of evidence regarding PARP inhibition in the treatment of mCRPC, with a specific focus on olaparib.
Therapies for lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) are an unmet medical need. One mechanism underlying CRPC and resistance to hormonal therapies is the expression of constitutively active splice variant(s) of androgen receptor (AR-Vs) that lack its C-terminus ligand-binding domain. Transcriptional activities of AR-Vs and full-length AR reside in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Ralaniten is the only drug proven to bind AR NTD, and it showed promise of efficacy in Phase 1 trials. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 is frequently overexpressed in prostate cancer. Here we show that Pin1 interacted with AR NTD. The inhibition of Pin1 expression or its activity selectively reduced the transcriptional activities of full-length AR and AR-V7. Combination of Pin1 inhibitor with ralaniten promoted cell cycle arrest and had improved antitumor activity against CRPC xenografts in vivo compared to individual monotherapies. These findings support the rationale for therapy that combines a Pin1 inhibitor with ralaniten for treating CRPC.
Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among molecular subtypes of the disease, and demonstrate the previously unappreciated importance of non-coding RNA transcripts. We identify alterations within the cAMP dependent pathway (GNAS, PRKAR1A) which converge on GLI2 activity and show that 18% of tumors have a genetic event that directly targets the abundance and/or stability of MYCN. Furthermore, we discover an extensive network of fusions in focally amplified regions encompassing GLI2, and several loss-of-function fusions in tumor suppressor genes PTCH1, SUFU and NCOR1. Molecular convergence on a subset of genes by nucleotide variants, copy number aberrations, and gene fusions highlight the key roles of specific pathways in the pathogenesis of Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma and open up opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
Objectives: Bench to bedside translation of groundbreaking treatments like chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy depends on patient participation in early phase trials. Unfortunately, many novel therapies fail to be adequately evaluated due to low recruitment rates, which slows patient access to emerging treatments. Using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), we sought to identify potential patient barriers and enablers to participating in an early phase CAR-T cell therapy trial.
Design: We used qualitative semistructured interviews to identify potential barriers and enablers to patients' hypothetical participation in an early phase CAR-T cell therapy trial. We used the TDF and directed content analysis to identify relevant domains based on frequency, relevance and the presence of conflicting beliefs.
Participants: Canadian adult patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies.
Results: In total, we interviewed 13 participants (8 women, 5 men). Participants ranged in age from 18 to 73 (median=56) and had been living with haematological cancer from a few months to several years. We found participants were unfamiliar with CAR-T cell therapy but wished to know more about treatment safety, efficacy and trial logistics (domains: knowledge, beliefs about consequences). They were motivated by altruistic considerations, though many prioritised personal health benefits despite recognising the goals (ie, establishing safety) of early phase clinical trials (domains: goals, intentions). Every participant valued receiving medical advice from their haematologists and oncologists, though some preferred impartial medical experts to inform their decision making (domain: social influences). Finally, participants indicated that improving access to financial and social supports would improve their trial participation experience (domain: environmental context and resources).
Conclusion: Using the TDF allowed us to identify factors that might undermine participation to a CAR-T cell therapy trial and to optimise recruitment processes by considering patient perspectives to taking part in early phase trials.
Androgens are a major driver of prostate cancer (PCa) and continue to be a critical treatment target for advanced disease, which includes castration therapy and antiandrogens. However, resistance to these therapies leading to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), and the emergence of treatment-induced neuroendocrine disease (tNEPC) remains an ongoing challenge. Instability of the DNA methylome is well established as a major hallmark of PCa development and progression. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of the methylation changes going from the castration sensitive to the tNEPC state would provide insights into novel mechanisms of resistance. Using an established xenograft model of CRPC, genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on cell lines representing various stages of PCa progression. We confirmed extensive methylation changes with the development of CRPC and tNEPC using this model. This included key genes and pathways associated with cellular differentiation and neurodevelopment. Combined analysis of methylation and gene expression changes further highlighted genes that could potentially serve as therapeutic targets. Furthermore, tNEPC-related methylation signals from this model were detectable in circulating cell free DNA (cfDNA) from mCRPC patients undergoing androgen-targeting therapies and were associated with a faster time to clinical progression. These potential biomarkers could help with identifying patients with aggressive disease.
Integration of orthogonal data could provide new opportunities to pinpoint the underlying molecular mechanisms of hematologic disorders. Using a novel gene network approach, we integrated DNA methylation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 194 cases) with the corresponding gene expression profile. Our integrated gene network analysis classified AML patients into low‐, intermediate‐, and high‐risk groups. The identified high‐risk group had significantly shorter overall survival compared to the low‐risk group (p‐value ≤ 10−11). Specifically, our approach identified a particular subgroup of nine high‐risk AML cases that died within 2 years after diagnosis. These high‐risk cases otherwise would be incorrectly classified as intermediate‐risk solely based on cytogenetics, mutation profiles, and common molecular characteristics of AML. We confirmed the prognostic value of our integrative gene network approach using two independent datasets, as well as through comparison with European LeukemiaNet and LSC17 criteria. Our approach could be useful in the prognostication of a subset of borderline AML cases. These cases would not be classified into appropriate risk groups by other approaches that use gene expression, but not DNA methylation data. Our findings highlight the significance of epigenomic data, and they indicate integrating DNA methylation data with gene coexpression networks can have a synergistic effect.
Protein aggregation is indicative of failing protein quality control systems. These systems are responsible for the refolding or degradation of aberrant and misfolded proteins. Heat stress can cause proteins to misfold, triggering cellular responses including a marked increase in the ubiquitination of proteins. This response has been characterized in yeast, however more studies are needed within mammalian cells. Herein, we examine proteins that become ubiquitinated during heat shock in human tissue culture cells using diGly enrichment coupled with mass spectrometry. A majority of these proteins are localized in the nucleus or cytosol. Proteins which are conjugated under stress display longer sequence lengths, more interaction partners, and more hydrophobic patches than controls but do not show lower melting temperatures. Furthermore, heat-induced conjugation sites occur less frequently in disordered regions and are closer to hydrophobic patches than other ubiquitination sites; perhaps providing novel insight into the molecular mechanism mediating this response. Nuclear and cytosolic pools of modified proteins appear to have different protein features. Using a pulse-SILAC approach, we found that both long-lived and newly-synthesized proteins are conjugated under stress. Modified long-lived proteins are predominately nuclear and were distinct from newly-synthesized proteins, indicating that different pathways may mediate the heat-induced increase of polyubiquitination. SIGNIFICANCE: The maintenance of protein homeostasis requires a balance of protein synthesis, folding, and degradation. Under stress conditions, the cell must rapidly adapt by increasing its folding capacity to eliminate aberrant proteins. A major pathway for proteolysis is mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. While increased ubiquitination after heat stress was observed over 30 years ago, it remains unclear which proteins are conjugated during heat shock in mammalian cells and by what means this conjugation occurs. In this study, we combined SILAC-based mass spectrometry with computational analyses to reveal features associated to proteins ubiquitinated while under heat shock. Interestingly, we found that conjugation sites induced by the stress are less often located within disordered regions and more often located near hydrophobic patches. Our study showcases how proteomics can reveal distinct feature associated to a cohort of proteins that are modified post translationally and how the ubiquitin conjugation sites are preferably selected in these conditions. Our work opens a new path for delineating the molecular mechanisms leading to the heat stress response and the regulation of protein homeostasis.